All people are unique and must be treated as individuals.
All people are valuable, no matter how disoriented they are.
There is a reason behind the behaviour of disoriented old-old people.
Behaviour in old-old age is not merely a function of anatomic changes in the brain, but reflects a combination of physical, social and psychological changes that take place over the lifespan.
Old people cannot be forced to change their behaviours. Behaviours can be changed only if the person wants to change them.
Old people must be accepted nonjudgmentally.
Particular life tasks are associated with each stage of life. Failure to complete a task at the appropriate stage of life may lead to psychological problems.
When more recent memory fails, older adults try to restore balance, in their lives by retrieving earlier memories. When eyesight fails, they use the mind’s eye to see. When hearing goes, they listen to sounds from the past.
Painful feelings that are expressed, acknowledged, and Validated by a trusted listener will diminish. Painful feelings that are ignored or suppressed will gain strength.
Empathy builds trust, reduces anxiety, and restores dignity.